Clinical References

  1. Black, J., Cuddigan, J. & the members of the National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel Board of Directors. (2020). Skin manifestations with COVID-19: The purple skin and toes that you are seeing may not be deep tissue pressure injury. An NPIAP White Paper.
  2. COIVD-19 Response for Nursing Facilities: Texas Health and Human Services. V. 3.6. 10/08/20.
  3. Classification of the cutaneous manifestations of COVID‐19: a rapid prospective nationwide consensus study in Spain with 375 cases Crossref DOI link: Published: 2020-07. Accessed 11/02/20.
  4. Daneshgaran G, Dubin D, Gould DJ. Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Preprint Accessed 11/5/20.
  5. Young S, Fernandez AP. Skin manifestations of COVID-19. COVID-19 Curbeside Consult. Posted May 7, 2020. CLEVELAND CLINIC JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Downloaded from on November 5, 2020.
  6. Oral mucosal lesions in a COVID-19 patient: New signs or secondary manifestations? Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. This is an open access article
  7. Singh H, Kaur H, Singh K, Sen CK. Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Accessed 10/27/20.
  8. Bataille V, Visconti A, Rossi N, Murray B et. al. Diagnostic value of skin manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. medRxiv 2020.07.10.20150656; doi:
  9. Drew DA, Nguyen LH, Steves CJ, et al. Rapid implementation of mobile technology for real-time epidemiology of COVID-19. Science 2020; 368: 1362–7.
  10. Wollina U, Karadağ AS, Rowland-Payne C, Chiriac A, Lotti T. Cutaneous signs in COVID-19 patients: A review [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 10]. Dermatol Ther. 2020;e13549. doi:10.1111/dth.13549
  11. Casas G et al. Five common skin manifestations of COVID-19 identified. Br J Dermatol 2020; 183:71–77.
  12. Gürkan Kaya, Aysin Kaya, Jean-Hilaire Saurat, Clinical and Histopathological Features and Potential Pathological Mechanisms of Skin Lesions in COVID-19: Review of the Literature, Dermatopathology, 10.3390/dermatopathology7010002, 7, 1, (3-16), (2020).
  13. Feldman SR, Freeman EE. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Cutaneous manifestations and issues related to dermatologic care. Accessed 9/18/20.
  14. Phelan AL, Katz R, Gostin LO. The Novel Coronavirus Originating in Wuhan, China: Challenges for Global Health Governance. JAMA 2020; published online Jan 30. DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.1097.
  15. Marzano AV, Cassano N, Genovese G, Moltrasio C, Vena GA. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19: A preliminary review of an emerging issue. Br J Dermatol 2020; published online June 1. DOI:10.1111/bjd.19264.
  16. Sachdeva M, Gianotti R, Shah, M, Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19: Report of three cases and a review of literature. April 24, 2020. Accessed 5/28.
  17. Accessed 5/28/20.
  18. Dermatology Solutions: Emerging Skin Manifestations of COVID-19. Accessed 5/28/20.
  19. Dance A. What is a cytokine storm?